Fire Safety Tips

FIRE PREVENTION AND SURVIVAL

FIRE BASICS

*ALL FIRES REQUIRE HEAT, FUEL, AND OXYGEN

*FIRES CAN BE EXTINGUISHED BY REMOVING ANY ONE OF THESE COMPONENTS

HOW FIRE KILLS

OXYGEN DEPRIVATION (FIRE CONSUMES OXYGEN)

  • NORMAL - 21% OXYGEN

  • DIFFICULTY BREATHING - 17% OXYGEN

    • UNCONSCIOUS/DEATH - 10% OXYGEN

POISONOUS SMOKE

  • CARBON MONOXIDE - DISPLACES OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD

  • HYDROGEN CYANIDE - PRODUCED BY BURNING WOOL, SILK, NYLON, SOME PLASTICS

  • HYDROGEN CHLORIDE - IRRITATES THROAT/EYES

  • CARBON DIOXIDE - CAUSES FASTER BREATHING THUS INCREASING INTAKE OF POISONS

    • HEAT - CAN EXCEED 1100°F

EARLY WARNING AND PROTECTION

*MORE THAN HALF OF FATAL FIRES STRIKE WHEN PEOPLE ARE ASLEEP

SMOKE ALARMS

  • IONIZING TYPE - PASS ELECTRIC CURRENT THROUGH SENSING CHAMBER, WHEN SMOKE ENTERS CHAMBER IT INTERRUPTS FLOW OF CURRENT AND ACTIVATES ALARM.

    • PHOTOELECTRIC - THIS TYPE AIMS A LIGHT SOURCE INTO A SENSING CHAMBER. SMOKE IN THE CHAMBER WILL REFLECT THE LIGHT ONTO A PHOTOCELL AND ACTIVATE ALARM.

  • HEARING IMPAIRED - ALARMS ARE AVAILABLE WITH STROBE LIGHTS.

    • HEAT DETECTORS - USE IN KITCHENS AND BATHROOMS WHERE FUMES OR STEAM CAN TRIGGER FALSE ALARMS.

INSTALLING SMOKE ALARMS

  • EVERY FLOOR OF HOME INCLUDING BASEMENT

    • OUTSIDE EACH SLEEPING AREA OR IN SLEEPING AREAS UTILIZING INTERCONNECTED ALARMS WHEN DOORS ARE KEPT SHUT

    • WALL MOUNTED ALARMS - 4 TO 12 INCHES FROM CEILING

    • CEILING MOUNTED ALARMS - 4 INCHES FROM ANY WALL; NEAR HIGHEST POINT OF PITCHED CEILINGS

    • BASEMENT ALARMS - CLOSE TO BOTTOM OF STAIRS

MAINTENANCE OF SMOKE ALARMS

    • TEST AT LEAST MONTHLY

    • REPLACE BATTERIES ANNUALLY

    • KEEP FREE OF COBWEBS AND DUST

    • REPLACE OLD DETECTORS (10 YEARS)

FIRE DRILLS/ESCAPING

DRAW FLOOR PLAN AND INDICATE AT LEAST TWO WAYS OUT OF EACH ROOM

HAVE A MEETING PLACE OUTSIDE

GET OUT AND STAY OUT

TEACH CHILDREN WHAT TO DO – PRACTICE

SURVIVAL TIPS

CLOSE DOORS

    • EVEN A HOLLOW DOOR CAN PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE/SMOKE

    • IN A FIRE, TEST DOORS WITH BACK OF BARE HAND BEFORE OPENING

WHAT TO DO IF YOU ARE TRAPPED

    • IF POSSIBLE, OPEN WINDOW ONLY FEW INCHES AT TOP AND BOTTOM. FRESH AIR SHOULD ENTER AT BOTTOM.

    • STUFF CLOTHES OR TOWELS IN CRACKS UNDER DOOR

    • STAY AT WINDOW AND WAVE FLASHLIGHT OR WAVE A TOWEL/SHEET TO HELP FIREFIGHTERS FIND YOU

GET LOW AND GO

STOP, DROP, AND ROLL IF CLOTHES CATCH FIRE

FIRST AIDE FOR BURNS

  • 1ST DEGREE (REDDENED SKIN) - APPLY COOL WATER FOR 3 – 5 MINUTES (DON’T APPLY ICE)

  • 2ND DEGREE (BLISTERED) - SAME AS 1ST DEGREE

    • 3RD DEGREE (CHARRED TISSUE) - APPLY WET STERILE DRESSINGS, REMOVE CLOTHING NOT STUCK TO SKIN, LAY ON BACK, ELEVATE BURNED AREAS

LEARN NOT TO BURN

COOKING SAFETY

  • NEVER LEAVE COOKING UNATTENDED

  • KEEP STOVE CLEAN

  • NEVER WEAR LOOSE, DANGLING CLOTHING WHILE COOKING

  • TURN POT HANDLES INWARD

  • MAINTAIN A KID FREE ZONE OF THREE FEET AROUND STOVE

  • REMOVE LIDS FROM MICROWAVED FOOD

  • LEARN HOW TO REACT TO SMALL FOOD FIRES

    • COVER PAN GREASE FIRES WITH LID

    • NEVER POUR WATER ON A GREASE FIRE OR CARRY PAN OUTSIDE

    • DISCHARGING A FIRE EXTINGUISHER COULD ALSO SPLATTER CONTENTS AND SPREAD FIRE

  • IF FIRE STARTS IN THE OVEN, CLOSE THE DOOR TO DEPRIVE IT OF OXYGEN

HEATING APPLIANCES

  • KEEP PORTABLE HEATERS AT LEAST THREE FEET FROM WALL

  • NEVER STORE LP GAS TANKS INSIDE HOME

  • KEEP WOOD BURNING STOVES CLEAN

  • NEVER BURN TRASH IN WOOD BURNING STOVE

CHILDREN AND FIRE

  • STORE MATCHES AND LIGHTERS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN

  • TEACH CHILDREN FIRE SAFETY

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

  • DO NOT OVERLOAD OUTLETS OR USE APPLIANCES WITH FRAYED WIRES

  • USE GFIs IN BATHROOMS, GARAGES, KITCHENS, AND OUTDOORS

  • PLUG ONLY ONE APPLIANCE INTO AN EXTENSION CORD

CANDLES

  • NEVER LEAVE BURNING CANDLE UNATTENDED

  • KEEP THEM AWAY FROM BEDDING, CURTAINS, AND WALLS.

  • USE FLASHLIGHTS INSTEAD OF CANDLES IN POWER OUTAGES

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS

  • STORE OILY RAGS IN A TIGHTLY SEALED CONTAINER OR HANG THEM TO DRY OUTSIDE

  • NEVER STORE GASOLINE INDOORS OR IN AN UNAPPROVED CONTAINER

  • NEVER FILL GASOLINE CONTAINERS WHILE THEY ARE IN THE VEHICLE OR IN THE BED OF A TRUCK

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

APPROPRIATE FOR FIGHTING SMALL FIRES IN THEIR EARLY STAGES

  • KNOW HOW TO OPERATE IT BEFORE AN EMERGENCY

  • EXTINGUISHER MUST BE RATED FOR FIRE YOU ARE FIGHTING

WHEN TO FIGHT A SMALL FIRE

  • EVERYONE HAS LEFT THE BUILDING OR IS LEAVING THE BUILDING

  • THE FIRE DEPARTMENT HAS BEEN CALLED OR IS BEING CALLED

  • FIRE IS CONFINED

  • YOUR BACK IS TO AN ACCESSIBLE EXIT

  • LITTLE SMOKE PRESENT

*IF UNABLE TO FIGHT IT, LEAVE IMMEDIATELY AND CLOSE THE DOOR BEHIND YOU

THE FOUR CLASSES OF FIRES AND EXTINGUISHER LABELS

CLASS A - ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLES SUCH AS WOOD, CLOTH, OR PAPER

CLASS B - FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS SUCH AS GASOLINE, OIL, OR OIL BASED PAINT

CLASS C - ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SUCH AS WIRING, FUSE BOXES, AND APPLIANCES

CLASS K - FIRES IN COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES

FIRE EXTINGUISHER SIZE

CLASS A OR B EXTINGUISHERS ARE LABELED WITH A NUMBER INDICATING ITS EFFECTIVENESS; THE LARGER THE NUMBER, THE MORE IT CAN PUT OUT (EX. 1-A, 2-A, 5-B, 10-B, ETC.)

INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF EXTINGUISHERS

  • SHOULD BE MOUNTED IN PLAIN SIGHT NEAR AN EXIT

  • MOST IMPORTANT PLACE TO HAVE AN EXTINGUISHER IS THE KITCHEN, GARAGE, WORKSHOP, OR ROOM WITH A FIREPLACE.

  • DISPOSABLE EXTINGUISHERS CAN BE USED ONLY ONCE.

  • CHECK GAUGE OR PRESSURE TESTING MECHANISM (READ INSTRUCTIONS)

USING A FIRE EXTINGUISHER

PASS

P - PULL THE PIN

A - AIM LOW

S - SQUEEZE THE LEVER

S - SWEEP FROM SIDE TO SIDE

*IF SMOKE OBSTRUCTS YOUR VISION OR THREATENS TO ENGULF YOUR

ESCAPE ROUTE, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO FIGHT THE FIRE. LEAVE THE BUILDING.