Fire Safety Tips

FIRE PREVENTION AND SURVIVAL 

FIRE BASICS 

*ALL FIRES REQUIRE HEAT, FUEL, AND OXYGEN

*FIRES CAN BE EXTINGUISHED BY REMOVING ANY ONE OF THESE  COMPONENTS 

HOW FIRE KILLS 

OXYGEN DEPRIVATION (FIRE CONSUMES OXYGEN) 

  •  NORMAL - 21% OXYGEN
  •  DIFFICULTY BREATHING - 17% OXYGEN
  •  UNCONSCIOUS/DEATH - 10% OXYGEN 

POISONOUS SMOKE 

  •  CARBON MONOXIDE - DISPLACES OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD
  •  HYDROGEN CYANIDE - PRODUCED BY BURNING WOOL, SILK, NYLON, SOME PLASTICS
  •  HYDROGEN CHLORIDE - IRRITATES THROAT/EYES
  •  CARBON DIOXIDE - CAUSES FASTER BREATHING THUS INCREASING INTAKE OF POISONS
  •  HEAT - CAN EXCEED 1100°F 

EARLY WARNING AND PROTECTION 

*MORE THAN HALF OF FATAL FIRES STRIKE WHEN PEOPLE ARE ASLEEP 

SMOKE ALARMS 

  • IONIZING TYPE - PASS ELECTRIC CURRENT THROUGH SENSING CHAMBER, WHEN SMOKE ENTERS CHAMBER IT INTERRUPTS FLOW OF CURRENT AND ACTIVATES ALARM.
  • PHOTOELECTRIC - THIS TYPE AIMS A LIGHT SOURCE INTO A SENSING CHAMBER.  SMOKE IN THE CHAMBER WILL REFLECT THE LIGHT ONTO A PHOTOCELL AND ACTIVATE ALARM.
  • HEARING IMPAIRED - ALARMS ARE AVAILABLE WITH STROBE  LIGHTS.
  • HEAT DETECTORS - USE IN KITCHENS AND BATHROOMS WHERE FUMES OR STEAM CAN TRIGGER  FALSE ALARMS. 

INSTALLING SMOKE ALARMS 

  • EVERY FLOOR OF HOME INCLUDING BASEMENT
  • OUTSIDE EACH SLEEPING AREA OR IN SLEEPING AREAS UTILIZING INTERCONNECTED ALARMS WHEN DOORS ARE KEPT SHUT 
  • WALL MOUNTED ALARMS - 4 TO 12 INCHES FROM CEILING 
  • CEILING MOUNTED ALARMS - 4 INCHES FROM ANY WALL; NEAR HIGHEST POINT OF PITCHED   CEILINGS 
  • BASEMENT ALARMS - CLOSE TO BOTTOM OF STAIRS 

MAINTENANCE OF SMOKE ALARMS 

  • TEST AT LEAST MONTHLY 
  • REPLACE BATTERIES ANNUALLY 
  • KEEP FREE OF COBWEBS AND DUST 
  • REPLACE OLD DETECTORS (10 YEARS) 

FIRE DRILLS/ESCAPING 

DRAW FLOOR PLAN AND INDICATE AT LEAST TWO WAYS OUT OF EACH ROOM 

HAVE A MEETING PLACE OUTSIDE 

GET OUT AND STAY OUT 

TEACH CHILDREN WHAT TO DO – PRACTICE 
 

SURVIVAL TIPS 

CLOSE DOORS  

  • EVEN A HOLLOW DOOR CAN PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE/SMOKE 
  • IN A FIRE, TEST DOORS WITH BACK OF BARE HAND BEFORE OPENING  

WHAT TO DO IF YOU ARE TRAPPED 

  • IF POSSIBLE, OPEN WINDOW ONLY FEW INCHES AT TOP AND BOTTOM. FRESH AIR SHOULD ENTER AT BOTTOM.  
  • STUFF CLOTHES OR TOWELS IN CRACKS UNDER DOOR 
  • STAY AT WINDOW AND WAVE FLASHLIGHT OR WAVE A TOWEL/SHEET TO HELP FIREFIGHTERS FIND YOU 

GET LOW AND GO 

STOP, DROP, AND ROLL IF CLOTHES CATCH FIRE 

FIRST AIDE FOR BURNS 

  • 1ST DEGREE (REDDENED SKIN) - APPLY COOL WATER FOR 3 – 5 MINUTES (DON’T APPLY ICE)
  • 2ND DEGREE (BLISTERED)  - SAME AS 1ST DEGREE
  • 3RD DEGREE (CHARRED TISSUE) - APPLY WET STERILE DRESSINGS, REMOVE CLOTHING NOT STUCK TO SKIN, LAY ON BACK, ELEVATE BURNED AREAS 

LEARN NOT TO BURN 

COOKING SAFETY 

  • NEVER LEAVE COOKING UNATTENDED 
  • KEEP STOVE CLEAN 
  • NEVER WEAR LOOSE, DANGLING CLOTHING WHILE COOKING 
  • TURN POT HANDLES INWARD 
  • MAINTAIN A KID FREE ZONE OF THREE FEET AROUND STOVE 
  • REMOVE LIDS FROM MICROWAVED FOOD 
  • LEARN HOW TO REACT TO SMALL FOOD FIRES
    • COVER PAN GREASE FIRES WITH LID
    • NEVER POUR WATER ON A GREASE FIRE OR CARRY PAN OUTSIDE
    • DISCHARGING A FIRE EXTINGUISHER COULD ALSO SPLATTER CONTENTS AND SPREAD FIRE
  •  IF FIRE STARTS IN THE OVEN, CLOSE THE DOOR TO DEPRIVE IT OF OXYGEN 

HEATING APPLIANCES 

  • KEEP PORTABLE HEATERS AT LEAST THREE FEET FROM WALL 
  • NEVER STORE LP GAS TANKS INSIDE HOME 
  • KEEP WOOD BURNING STOVES CLEAN 
  • NEVER BURN TRASH IN WOOD BURNING STOVE 

CHILDREN AND FIRE 

  • STORE MATCHES AND LIGHTERS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN
  • TEACH CHILDREN FIRE SAFETY 

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 

  • DO NOT OVERLOAD OUTLETS OR USE APPLIANCES WITH FRAYED WIRES 
  • USE GFIs IN BATHROOMS, GARAGES, KITCHENS, AND OUTDOORS 
  • PLUG ONLY ONE APPLIANCE INTO AN EXTENSION CORD 

CANDLES 

  • NEVER LEAVE BURNING CANDLE UNATTENDED 
  • KEEP THEM AWAY FROM BEDDING, CURTAINS, AND WALLS. 
  • USE FLASHLIGHTS INSTEAD OF CANDLES IN POWER OUTAGES 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS

  • STORE OILY RAGS IN A TIGHTLY SEALED CONTAINER OR HANG THEM TO DRY OUTSIDE 
  • NEVER STORE GASOLINE INDOORS OR IN AN UNAPPROVED CONTAINER 
  • NEVER FILL GASOLINE CONTAINERS WHILE THEY ARE IN THE VEHICLE OR IN THE BED OF A TRUCK

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

APPROPRIATE FOR FIGHTING SMALL FIRES IN THEIR EARLY STAGES 

  • KNOW HOW TO OPERATE IT BEFORE AN EMERGENCY 
  • EXTINGUISHER MUST BE RATED FOR FIRE YOU ARE FIGHTING 

WHEN TO FIGHT A SMALL FIRE 

  • EVERYONE HAS LEFT THE BUILDING OR IS LEAVING THE BUILDING 
  • THE FIRE DEPARTMENT HAS BEEN CALLED OR IS BEING CALLED 
  • FIRE IS CONFINED 
  • YOUR BACK IS TO AN ACCESSIBLE EXIT 
  • LITTLE SMOKE PRESENT 

*IF UNABLE TO FIGHT IT, LEAVE IMMEDIATELY AND CLOSE THE DOOR BEHIND YOU 

THE FOUR CLASSES OF FIRES AND EXTINGUISHER LABELS 

CLASS A - ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLES SUCH AS WOOD, CLOTH, OR PAPER
CLASS B - FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS SUCH AS GASOLINE, OIL, OR OIL BASED PAINT
CLASS C - ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SUCH AS WIRING, FUSE BOXES, AND APPLIANCES
CLASS K - FIRES IN COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER SIZE 

CLASS A OR B EXTINGUISHERS ARE LABELED WITH A NUMBER INDICATING ITS EFFECTIVENESS; THE LARGER THE NUMBER, THE MORE IT CAN PUT OUT (EX. 1-A, 2-A, 5-B, 10-B, ETC.)  

INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF EXTINGUISHERS 

  •  SHOULD BE MOUNTED IN PLAIN SIGHT NEAR AN EXIT 
  • MOST IMPORTANT PLACE TO HAVE AN EXTINGUISHER IS THE KITCHEN, GARAGE, WORKSHOP, OR ROOM WITH A FIREPLACE. 
  • DISPOSABLE EXTINGUISHERS CAN BE USED ONLY ONCE. 
  • CHECK GAUGE OR PRESSURE TESTING MECHANISM (READ INSTRUCTIONS) 

USING A FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

PASS 

 P - PULL THE PIN

 A - AIM LOW

 S - SQUEEZE THE LEVER

 S - SWEEP FROM SIDE TO SIDE 

*IF SMOKE OBSTRUCTS YOUR VISION OR THREATENS TO ENGULF YOUR

ESCAPE ROUTE, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO FIGHT THE FIRE. LEAVE THE  BUILDING.


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